People with schizophrenia develop changes in the structure of the brain, which can be detected on anatomical MRI.
Vadim Ushakov, senior researcher at the Institute for Advanced Brain Studies at Moscow University, says: “With the help of morphological measurement methods, it is possible to measure the sizes and areas of areas and thicknesses of some brain structures. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the so-called tractography (a technique that allows visualization of the brain’s pathways – matter tracts) can also be measured.” “Diffusion shows the direction of the axonal paths by which cells are connected to each other.”
According to him, in this way doctors can see the so-called “telegraph lines” of the brain. An MRI shows how one area of the brain is connected to another using lines and how strong this connection is.
MRI shows a different structure of brain structures and the direction of the “telegraph lines” in patients with schizophrenia.
“These patients also lose the strength of the connection between the cells, because the brain can’t agree with itself. At the moment we only see the defect. So the next step will be to understand how the specific defect relates to symptoms of hallucinations and delusions.”
According to him, schizophrenia remains one of the most mysterious diseases affecting humans. To date, the causes of its development have not been determined, there is no objective diagnosis for it, and it cannot be completely treated.
Florida Gulf Coast : What happens to marine animals in the ocean during a hurricane?
When powerful hurricanes hit land, uprooted trees, destroyed homes, and other devastation are clearly visible, but what happens in marine environments is not always clear.
A wide variety of marine life lives along the Florida peninsula, the US state where hurricanes most often make landfall.
Not all hurricanes have the same effects, said Melissa May, an assistant professor of marine biology at Florida Gulf Coast University.
But the effects of a storm can have its own devastating effects, ranging from changes in salinity to the influx of sediment and bacteria.
What happens to marine life during a hurricane?
In a typical year, about 10 hurricanes occur in the Atlantic Basin, which includes the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
The force of a hurricane can create waves as high as 60 feet, which bring together cold water from the depths with warmer surface water to merge together. The currents can stir up sediment up to 300 feet deep, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Many marine mammals and fish can move to deeper, calmer waters when they sense a storm coming.
To find out how they sense this, the researchers followed the movements of blacktip sharks during a tropical storm in 2001, and found that they left the area before reaching land and returned five to 13 days later.
The scientists hypothesized that lower barometric pressure, changes in water temperature, and similar signals alert the fish that a storm is imminent.
Experts recalled Hurricane Andrew in 1992, where an estimated 9.4 million saltwater fish died, the US Geological Survey found. Deep within, hurricane sediments may have clogged their gills, or pressure changes may have created deadly nitrogen gas bubbles in their blood.
Hurricanes also affect stationary or slow-moving marine life. After hurricanes, “seagrass beds and oyster reefs are buried by moving sediment,” Valerie Ball, a senior scientist at the Smithsonian Marine Station, said in an email to Insider.
Hurricane Ian washed ashore nearly 250 baby sea turtles.
What happens to the ocean after a hurricane?
After a strong storm subsides, trash and waste can remain in bodies of water for months or even longer.
“There was a lot of debris from Hurricane Ian in estuaries,” May said. “Sewage can also make its way into waterways, bringing with it bacteria such as enterococci and E. coli.”
Rain and floods caused by hurricanes also lead to an influx of fresh water into marine environments.
Marine life can often tolerate some changes in salt concentrations, but not drastic or long-term changes.
Marine dolphins, on the other hand, can only live in fresh water for a short time without suffering serious effects.
If the hurricane pushes river water into the marine system, it creates favorable conditions for the formation of large algae blooms.
Finally, May explained that hurricanes are natural events. “Our ecosystems are actually designed to be kind of wiped out, every once in a while,” she said.
It should be noted that climate change may not lead to an increase in the number of hurricanes, but it may make them more intense, according to NASA.
Amur and Harbin University : Russian and Chinese students are developing a remote sensing Earth satellite
Students from Russia’s Amur State University and China’s Harbin University of Applied Sciences have developed a small satellite that will be used to sense the Earth remotely.
A statement issued by the administration of the Russian Amur Province said: “Students from Amur State University and Harbin University of Applied Sciences have assembled the first Friendship satellite, and this satellite is scheduled to be launched from the Vostochny Space Airport next December.”
The statement indicated that the new satellite will be used to sense the Earth remotely, monitor natural phenomena and search for missing objects, so it will be equipped with special high-resolution cameras.
According to the statement, the assembly operations of the new satellite have been completed, and soon it will be transported to the Vostochny Space Airport to undergo pre-flight tests, and on December 5, it is supposed to be launched from the airport on board a Russian-made rocket.
It should be noted that many specialists in the fields of space and space rocket manufacturing have graduated from the Russian Amur State University, and 150 graduates from this university currently work at the Russian Vostochny Space Airport.